International Journal of Advance Research in Medical Surgical Nursing
2021, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Part A
Zika virus: A review
Manish Nathaniel Tadke
The virus was first isolated in April 1947 from a rhesus macaque monkey placed in a cage in the Ziika Forest of Uganda, near Lake Victoria, by the scientists of the Yellow Fever Research Institute. A second isolation from the mosquito A. africanus followed at the same site in January 1948. When the monkey developed a fever, researchers isolated from its serum a "filterable transmissible agent" which was named Zika in 1948.
The first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika outbreaks have probably occurred in many locations.Between August and November 2016, 455 cases of Zika virus infection were confirmed in Singapore.In 2017, Angola reported two cases of Zika fever. In April 2007, the first outbreak outside of Africa and Asia occurred on the island of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia, characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia, which was initially thought to be dengue, chikungunya, or Ross River disease. Serum samples from patients in the acute phase of illness contained RNA of Zika. There were 49 confirmed cases, 59 unconfirmed cases, no hospitalizations, and no deaths.
Majority of cases are found in tropical regions, wet lowlands, regions with warmer temperatures and higher levels of poverty. Countries with past or recent Zika virus infection include parts of Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
Though India offers a fertile environment to the virus, so far no case relating to it has been reported in the country. The best prevention is to control the spread of Aedes mosquito that breeds in standing water.